In natural conception only a few sperm cells reach the ampulla or the site of fertilization. This population is a selected group of cells since only motile cells can pass through cervical mucus and gain initial entry into the female reproductive tract. In animals, some studies indicate that the sperm selected by the reproductive tract and recovered from the uterus and the oviducts have higher fertilization rates but this is not a universal finding. Some species show less discrimination in sperm selection and abnormal sperm do arrive at the oviduct. In contrast, assisted reproductive technologies ART utilize a more random sperm population.
Sperm donation is the provision or "donation" by a man known as a sperm donor of his sperm known as donor sperm , principally for it to be used in the artificial insemination of a woman or women who are not his sexual partners for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy. Sperm may be donated publicly and directly to the intended donor, or through a sperm bank or fertility clinic. Sperm donation enables a man to father a child for third-party women, and is therefore, categorized as a form of third party reproduction. Pregnancies are usually achieved by using donor sperm in assisted reproductive technology ART techniques which include artificial insemination either by intracervical insemination ICI or intrauterine insemination IUI in a clinic, or intravaginal insemination at home.
It may seem cheaper and easier than having treatment at a clinic, but there are some important issues to consider. Find out more about home insemination, the risks and how to protect you and your family. Clinics in the UK are required by law to ensure that donors, patients and any future children are protected by carrying out rigorous health tests and offering everyone involved counselling. This will give him rights over, and responsibilities for, your child. Find out more about becoming the legal parents of your child.
However, we will store all semen samples that contain some genetic material. Advances in reproductive technologies make it possible for conception to occur, even with samples with very low sperm counts or even from samples with non-motile sperm. At this appointment, the donor provides an ejaculate for evaluation only—the ejaculate is not stored and can not be used for insemination. Our lab will perform a complete semen analysis on the sample, freeze it, and thaw it a week later to assess cryo survival. This account has extensive FDA required testing and screening as well as a six month vial quarantine.